发布时间: 2024-06-12 10:16:30






本场考试难度较上一场有下降,出现了同学们害怕的地图题,但是作为part2的题目,不会太难,其他常规题型均有涉及。P1求职咨询,考察的答案词较常规,涉及到人名、数字、月份和星期等基础信息,这里提醒大家加强基础单词的巩固。P2考察的是厨师学校,题型是匹配和地图题。P3考察的是交通,为常规的选择和匹配题。P4考察的题型是填空题,场景为医院,出现了部分难词infection传染,immune system免疫系统,对大家场景词汇的积累要求也越来越高。雅思听力

本场考试主要加强地图题和医疗类的篇目练习。参考剑桥练习:剑14 Test2 Section1;剑16 Test1 Section2;剑12 Test8 Section2

备注:在接下来的备考中,大家要加强对地图题的重视,地图题今年的考频有明显上升。这是很多同学的难点,做得好的同学可以全对,如果听错了往往错一堆,因此失分非常高。要做好地图题,首先要熟练掌握各种方位词,同时掌握考点方位,比如十字路口junction,在对面cross the road from,断头路at the end of等。其次,要加快读题速度,在听之前将图中给到的信息快速熟悉并分析到位。







除了work&study,hometown和accommodation这类必考题要及时准备之外,5-8月题库中出现了大量的新话题如outer space and star,jewelry,childhood memory等相对抽象的话题也要特别关注,在备考时,同学们除了要及时积累一些相关素材和常用表达之外,也可以用一些相关策略来进行观点的补充和句长的延伸,如:举例说明、补充细节、对比等方式来丰富自己的答案内容。







P1 Foot Pedal Irrigation脚踏式灌溉

P2 Coastal Archaeology of Britain英国海岸考古学

P3 Biology of Bitterness苦味生物学




Passage 1:Foot Pedal Irrigation脚踏式灌溉


Until now,governments and development agencies have tried to tackle the problem through large-scale projects:gigantic dams,sprawling,irrigation canals and vast new fields of high-yield crops introduced during the Green Revolution,the famous campaign to increase grain harvests in developing nations.Traditional irrigation,however,has degraded the soil in many areas,and the reservoirs behind dams can quickly fill up with silt,reducing their storage capacity and depriving downstream farmers of fertile sediments.Furthermore,although the Green Revolution has greatly expanded worldwide farm production since1950,poverty stubbornly persists in Africa,Asia and Latin America.Continued improvements in the productivity of large farms may play the main role in boosting food supply,but local efforts to provide cheap,individual irrigation systems to small farms may offer a better way to lift people out of poverty.


The Green Revolution was designed to increase the overall food supply,not to raise the incomes of the rural poor,so it should be no surprise that it did not eradicate poverty or hunger.India,for example,has been self-sufficient in food for 15 years,and its granaries are full,but more than 200million Indians-one fifth of the country's population-are malnourished because they cannot afford the food they need and because the country's safety nets are deficient.In2000,189 nations committed to the Millennium Development Goals,which called for cutting world poverty in half by 2015.With business as usual,however,we have little hope of achieving most of the Millennium goals,no matter how much money rich countries contribute to poor ones.


The supply-driven strategies of the Green Revolution,however,may not help subsistence farmers,who must play to their strengths to compete in the global marketplace.The average size of a family farm is less than four acres in India,1.8 acres in Bangladesh and about half an acre in China.Combines and other modern farming tools are too expensive to be used on such small areas.An Indian farmer selling surplus wheat grown on his one-acre plot could not possibly compete with the highly efficient and subsidized Canadian wheat farms that typically stretch over thousands of acres.Instead subsistence farmers should exploit the fact that their labor costs are the lowest in the world,giving them a comparative advantage in growing and selling high-value,intensely farmed crops.


Paul Polak saw firsthand the need for a small-scale strategy in 1981 when he met Abdul Rahman,a farmer in the Noakhali district of Bangladesh.From his three quarter-acre plots of rain-fed rice fields,Abdul could grow only 700 kilograms of rice each year-300 kilograms less than what he needed to feed his family.During the three months before the October rice harvest came in,Abdul and his wife had to watch silently while their three children survived on one meal a day or less.As Polak walked with him through the scattered fields he had inherited from his father,Polak asked what he needed to move out of poverty."Control of water for my crops,"he said,“at a price I can afford."


Soon Polak learned about a simple device that could help Abdul achieve his goal:the treadle pump.Developed in the late 1970s by Norwegian engineer Gunnar Barnes,the pump is operated by a person walking in place on a pair of treadles and two handle arms made of bamboo.Properly adjusted and maintained,it can be operated several hours a day without tiring the users.Each treadle pump has two cylinders which are made of engineering plastic.The diameter of a cylinder is 100.5mm and the height is 280mm.The pump is capable of working up to a maximum depth of 7 meters.Operation beyond 7 meters is not recommended to preserve the integrity of the rubber components.The pump mechanism has piston and foot valve assemblies.The treadle action creates alternate strokes in the two pistons that lift the water in pulses.


The human-powered pump can irrigate half an acre of vegetables and costs only$25(including the expense of drilling a tube well down to the groundwater).Abdul heard about the treadle pump from a cousin and was one of the first farmers in Bangladesh to buy one.He borrowed the$25 from an uncle and easily repaid the loan four months later.During the five-month dry season,when Bangladeshis typically farm very little,Abdul used the treadle pump to grow a quarter-acre of chili peppers,tomatoes,cabbage and eggplants.He also improved the yield of one of his rice plots by irrigating it.His family ate some of the vegetables and sold the rest at the village market,earning a net profit of$100.With his new income,Abdul was able to buy rice for his family to eat,keep his two sons in school until they were 16 and set aside a little money for his daughter's dowry.When Polak visited him again in 1984,he had doubled the size of his vegetable plot and replaced the thatched roof on his house with corrugated tin.His family was raising a calf and some chickens.He told me that the treadle pump was a gift from God.


Bangladesh is particularly well suited for the treadle pump because a huge reservoir of groundwater lies just a few meters below the farmers'feet.In the early 1980s IDE initiated a campaign to market the pump,encouraging 75 small private-sector companies to manufacture the devices and several thousand village dealers and tube-well drillers to sell and install them.Over the next 12 years one and a half million farm families purchased treadle pumps,which increased the farmers'net income by a total of$150 million a year.The cost of IDE's market-creation activities was only$12 million,leveraged by the investment of$37.5 million from the farmers themselves.In contrast,the expense of building a conventional dam and canal system to irrigate an equivalent area of farmland would be in the range of$2,000 per acre,or$1.5 billion.



Questions 1-6

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet,write

TRUEif the statement agrees with the view of the writer

FALSE if the statement contradicts the view of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

1.It is more effective to resolve poverty or food problem in large scale rather than in small scale.

2.Construction of gigantic dams costs more time in developing countries.

3.Green revolution foiled to increase global crop production from the mid of20th century.

4.Agricultural production in Bangladesh declined in last decade.

5.Farmer Abdul Rahman knew how to increase production himself.

6.Small pump spread into big project in Bangladesh in the past decade.

Questions 7-10

Filling the blanks in diagram of treadle pump's each parts.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

Questions 11-13

Answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

11.How large area can a treadle pump irrigate the field at a low level of expense?

12.What is Abdul's new roof made of?

13.How much did Bangladesh farmers invest by IDE's stimulation?


The recognition of the wealth and diversity of England's coastal archaeology has been one of the most important developments of recent years.Some elements of this enormous resource have long been known.The so-called’submerged forests'off the coasts of England,sometimes with clear evidence of human activity,had attracted the interest of antiquarians since at least the eighteenth century but serious and systematic attention has been given to the archaeological potential of the coast only since the early 1980s.


It is possible to trace a variety of causes for this concentration of effort and interest.In the 1980s and 1990s scientific research into climate change and its environmental impact spilled over into a much broader public debate as awareness of these issues grew;the prospect of rising sea levels over the next century,and their impact on current coastal environments,has been a particular focus for concern.At the same time,archaeologists were beginning to recognize that the destruction caused by natural processes of coastal erosion and by human activity was having an increasing impact on the archaeological resource of the coast.


The dominant process affecting the physical form of England in the post-glacial period has been the rise in the altitude of sea level relative to the land,as the glaciers melted and the landmass readjusted.The encroachment of the sea,the loss of huge areas of land now under the North Sea and the English Channel,and especially the loss of the land bridge between England and France,which finally made Britain an island,must have been immensely significant factors in the lives of our prehistoric ancestors.Yet the way in which prehistoric communities adjusted to these environmental changes has seldom been a major theme in discussions of the period.One factor contributing to this has been that,although the rise in relative sea level is comparatively well documented,we know little about the constant reconfiguration of the coastline.This was affected by many processes,mostly quite,which have not yet been adequately researched.The detailed reconstruction of coastline histories and the changing environments available for human use will be an important theme for future research.


So great has been the rise in sea level and the consequent regression of the coast that each of the archaeological evidence now exposed in the coastal zone,whether being eroded or exposed as a buried land surface,is derived from what was originally terrestrial occupation.Its current location in the coastal zone is the product of later unrelated processes,and it can tell us little about past adaptations to the sea.Estimates of its significance will need to be made in the context of other related evidence from dry land sites.Nevertheless,its physical environment means that preservation is often excellent,for example in the case of the Neolithic structure excavated at the Stumble in Essex.


In some cases these buried land surfaces do contain evidence for human exploitation of what was a coastal environment,and elsewhere along the modem coast there is similar evidence.Where the evidence does relate to past human exploitation of the resources and the opportunities offered by the sea and the coast,it is both diverse and as yet little understood.We are not yet in a position to make even preliminary estimates of answers to such fundamental questions as the extent to which the sea and the coast affected human life in the past,what percentage of the population at any time lived within reach of the sea,or whether human settlements in coastal environments showed a distinct character from those inland.


The most striking evidence for use of the sea is in the form of boats,yet we still have much to learn about their production and use.Most of the known wrecks around our coast are not unexpectedly of post-medieval date,and offer an unparalleled opportunity for research which has as yet been little used.The prehistoric sewn-plank boats such as those from the Humber estuary and Dover all seem to belong to the second millennium BC;after this there is a gap in the record of a millennium,which cannot yet be explained,before boats reappear,but built using a very different technology.Boat building must have been an extremely important activity around much of our coast,yet we know almost nothing about it,Boats were some of the most complex artefact produced by pre-modem societies,and further research on their production and use make an important contribution to our understanding of past attitudes to technology and technological change.


Boats needed landing places,yet here again our knowledge is very patchy In many cases the natural shores and beaches would have sufficed,leaving little or no archaeological trace,but especially in later periods,many ports and harbors,as well as smaller facilities such as quays,wharves,and jetties,were built.Despite a growth of interest in the waterfront archaeology of some of our more important Roman and medieval towns,very little attention has been paid to the multitude of smaller landing places.Redevelopment of harbor sites and other development and natural pressures along the coast are subjecting these important locations to unprecedented threats,yet few surveys of such sites have been undertaken.


One of the most important revelations of recent research has been the extent of industrial activity along the coast.Fishing and salt production are among the better documented activities,but even here our knowledge is patchy Many forms of fishing will leave little archaeological trace,and one of the surprises of recent survey has been the extent of past investment in facilities for procuring fish and shellfish.Elaborate wooden fish weirs,often of considerable extent and responsive to aerial photography in shallow water,have been identified in areas such as Essex and the Severn estuary.The production of salt,especially in the late Iron Age and early Roman periods,has been recognized for some time,especially in the Thames estuary and around the Solent and Poole Harbor,but the reasons for the decline of that industry and the nature of later coastal salt working are much less well understood.Other industries were also located along the coast,either because the raw materials outcropped there or for ease of working and transport:mineral resources such as sand,gravel,stone,coal,ironstone,and alum were all exploited.These industries are poorly documented,but their remains are sometimes extensive and striking.


Some appreciation of the variety and importance of the archaeological remains preserved in the coastal zone,albeit only in preliminary form,can thus be gained from recent work,but the complexity of the problem of managing that resource is also being realised.The problem arises not only from the scale and variety of the archaeological remains,but also from two other sources:the very varied natural and human threats to the resource,and the complex web of organisations with authority over,or interests in,the coastal zone.Human threats include the redevelopment of historic towns and old dockland areas,and the increased importance of the coast for the leisure and tourism industries,resulting in pressure for the increased provision of facilities such as marinas.The larger size of ferries has also caused an increase in the damage caused by their wash to fragile deposits in the intertidal zone.The most significant natural threat is the predicted rise in sea level over the next century especially in the south and east of England.Its impact on archaeology is not easy to predict,and though it is likely to be highly localized,it will be at a scale much larger than that of most archaeological sites.Thus protecting one site may simply result in transposing the threat to a point further along the coast.The management of the archaeological remains will have to be considered in a much longer time scale and a much wider geographical scale than is common in the case of dry land sites,and this will pose a serious challenge for archaeologists.



Questions 14-16

Choose the correct letter.A.B.C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 14-16 on your answer sheet.

14.What has caused public interest in coastal archaeology in recent years?

A Golds and jewelries in the ships that have submerged

B The rising awareness of climate change

C Forests under the sea

D Technological advance in the field of sea research

15.What does the passage say about the evidence of boats?

A We have a good knowledge of how boats were made and what boats were for prehistorically

B Most of the boats discovered was found in harbors

C The use of boats had not been recorded for a thousand years

D The way to build boats has remained unchanged throughout human history

16.What can be discovered from the air?

A Salt mines

B Shellfish

C Iron stones

D Fisheries

Questions 17-23

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage1?

In boxes 17-23 on your answer sheet.write

TRUEif the statement is true

FALSEif the statement is false

NOT GIVENif the information is not given in the passage

17.England lost much of its land after the ice-age due to the rising sea level.

18.The coastline of England has changed periodically.

19.Coastal archaeological evidence may be well-protected by seawater.

20.The design of boats used by pre-modern people was very simple.

21.Similar boats were also discovered in many other European countries.

22.There are a few documents relating to mineral exploitation.

23.Large passenger boats are causing increasing damage to the seashore.

Questions 24-26

Choose THREE letters A-G

Write your answer in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet

Which THREE of the following statements are mentioned in the passage?

A Our prehistoric ancestors adjusted to the environmental change caused by the rising sea level by moving to higher lands.

B It is difficult to understand how many people lived close to the sea.

C Human settlements in the coastal environment were different from that inland D Our knowledge of boat evidence is limited.

E The prehistoric boats were built mainly for collecting sand from the river.

F Human development threatens the archaeological remains.

G The reason for the decline of the salt industry was the shortage of laborers.







The charts below show the class size of four states of Australia.


Health services are a basic necessity for a person.Private companies have made health services quite costly for ordinary individuals.Do the advantages of private health care outweigh its disadvantages?





这是一道利弊类大作文,聊的是私人医疗的利弊分析。利弊类大作文需要强调在论证上体现合理性,即在具体的分析中,明确能体现出一边的论述的确是大于另一边。审题时需要注意一点,题目讨论对象是private health care,所有利弊都要围绕这个展开,不要变成公共和私人孰优孰劣,那就偏题了。


一方面私人医疗机构通常提供更高质量的服务,拥有先进的医疗设备和设施cutting-edge medical facilities。这些机构可以用更高的薪资吸引和留住高素质的医疗专业人员highly qualified medical professionals,从而提高医疗服务的质量。也能为患者提供更快的医疗服务,避免了因等待时间过长而导致病情恶化disease deterioration的风险。

另一方面,私人医疗机构往往提供个性化的医疗服务personal medical service,能够根据患者的具体需求制定治疗计划。这种个性化服务可以提高治疗效果,增强患者的满意度。例如,私人诊所可能提供一对一的医生咨询服务,详细了解患者的病史和健康状况。




三是私人医疗服务可能导致医疗资源的不平等分配,富人可以享受更好的医疗服务,而穷人只能依赖资源有限的公立医院Public hospitals with limited resources。这种不平等可能加剧社会分化,影响社会稳定。例如,在一些国家,私立医院配备最先进的设备,而公立医院却缺乏基本的医疗设施及人员。